Notes and Study Materials

Hyper Text Markup Language:

HTML definition is Hyper Text Markup Language and it is a markup language. A markup language is a set of markup tags and the tags describe document content. HTML documents contain HTML tags and plain text. HTML documents are also called web pages.

HTML Tags:

HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags and tags are keywords surrounded by angle brackets like <html>. These tags are also called as basic html elements. HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b>. The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag. The end tag is written like the start tag, with a forward slash before the tag name. Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags. By using these tags we can create a simple HTML page very easily.

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HTML document structure

 HTML document is basically separated in two segments: the head (HTML head element) and the body (HTML body element), both contained by the 'HTML' element. You add a Document Type Declaration on top of it and get the basic document structure for a web page. 

The !DOCTYPE declaration:

Every well-written HTML document begins with a basic declaration that defines what type of document it is. This declaration is made using the HTML! DOCTYPE tag and is the very first thing in all the document. It's intended to tell the processing agent (e.g., browser, search engine, etc.) for which standard is designed the document that's about to process.

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HTML Formatting Tags:

There are different types of HTML tags are used to format the appearance of the text on your web page. 


1. Create Headings - The <h1> to <h6> Elements:


Any document starts with a heading. You can use different sizes for your headings. There are 6 levels of headings available, from h1 for the largest and most important heading, down to h6 for the smallest heading. Here is an example of the code for all the headline sizes:

<h1>Level 1 Headline</h1>

<h2>Level 2 Headline</h2>

<h3>Level 3 Headline</h3>

<h4>Level 4 Headline</h4>

<h5>Level 5 Headline</h5>

<h6>Level 6 Headline</h6>

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Images in Web Pages:

Inserting graphics and pictures into your web pages is really easy. The HTML element IMG used for this purpose is. It´s an empty (stand-alone) element, which means that it only has an opening tag and neither content nor a closing tag. Images are used in HTML documents for the following purpose.


1. Make the page visually effective and

2. Display information. Images can also be used as links.


I. Inserting Image with in the Document:

To insert image with in the documnet <img> tas is used. The different attributes of IMG tag are as follows:

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Different types of Lists in HTML



Lists are the preferred way to display items one after the other, instead of just using <br> tags. Lists are another nice formatting tool for the content of your web pages. The most commonly used list types are:

• unordered lists (bullet lists) - the one you see here

• ordered lists
• definition lists


While an unordered list like the one above uses bullets by default before each list item, an ordered list puts ordinal numbers (1.2.,3., ...) before each list item. 

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Hyperlinks in HTML:

Links allow you to jump from one page to another by clicking on the link text. You can also jump to places on the same page (called fragments), to different sections of your site, or to another web site all together.

A link is specified using the <a> element. This element is called anchor tag as well. Anything between the opening

<a> tag and the closing </a> tag becomes part of the link and a user can click that part to reach to the linked document.

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Tables in HTML

The tables are used to arrange data (i.e. text, images & other content) in rows and columns. But most frequently, tables are used as a layout device to divide WebPages into different sections like header, footer, right and left column, main center content and so on.

The Basic Structure of an HTML Table:

To create a table basically, we need three HTML elements: TABLE, TR (Table Row) and TD (Table Data).

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