Notes and Study Materials

Components of Data Communication

The different components of Data communication are shown in the following figure.


Components of Data Communication

1. Message:

The message is the information (data) to be communicated. Popular forms of information include text, numbers, pictures, audio, and video.

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2. Sender:

The sender is the device that sends the data message. It can be a computer, workstation, telephone handset, video camera, and so on.


3. Receiver:

The receiver is the device that receives the message. It can be a computer, workstation, telephone handset, television, and so on.


4. Transmission medium:

The transmission medium is the physical path by which a message travels from sender to receiver. Some examples of transmission media include twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, and radio waves.


5. Protocol:

A protocol is a set of rules that govern data communications. It represents an agreement between the communicating devices. Without a protocol, two devices may be connected but not communicating, just as a person speaking French cannot be understood by a person who speaks only Japanese.


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