Notes and Study Materials



The computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes these data under the control of the set of instructions (called program) and gives the result (output) and saves output for the future use. It can process both numerical and non-numerical (arithmetic and logical) calculations.

Characteristics of computers

The major characteristics of computer can be classified into speed, accuracy, diligence, versatility and memory which are as follows:


1. Speed:


The computer is able to process the date and give the output in fractions of seconds such that required information is given to the user on time enabling the user to take right decisions on right time. A powerful computer is capable of executing about 3 million calculations per second.



2. Accuracy:


In spite of its high speed of processing, the computers accuracy is consistently high enough which avoids any errors. If it all there are errors, they are due to errors in instructions given by the programmer.


3. Reliable:


The output generated by the computer is very reliable, but it is reliable only when the data, which is passing as input to the computer and the program, which gives instructions are correct and reliable.


4. Storage Capacity:


The computer has a provision to store large volumes of data in the small storage devices, which has the capacity to store huge amounts of data and help the retrieval of data an easy task.


5. Versatile:

The computer performs three basic operations

1. It is capable to access and accept information through various input-output devices from the user.

2. It performs basic Arithmetic and Logic operations on data as desired.

3. It  is capable, to generate the desired output in the desired form.


6. Automation:


Once the instructions fed into the computer it works automatically without any human intervention until the completion of execution of a program until meets logical instructions to terminate the job.

Limitations of Computer


1. The Computer does not work on itself, it requires set of instructions to be provided, and else computer (Hardware) is waste.


2. Computers are not intelligent, they have to be instructed about each and every step which they have to perform


3. Computers cannot take decisions on its own, one has to program the computer to take an action if some conditional prevail.



4) Computers unlike humans, cannot learn by experience.


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